Following a healthy and active lifestyle and eating a balanced diet are the best ways to foster a bountiful gut flora. Taking care of your gut flora can help with things like irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, among other things. Even if you’re not sold on pursuing probiotics for your allergies, they’re good to consider if you’re experiencing any gastrointestinal issues.

It’s great to get some healthy sour foods. I often add one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a drink, twice a day. Before breakfast and lunch or breakfast and dinner, add one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in your meal, and then start consuming more fermented vegetables like sauerkraut and kimchi, or drinking kvass. Is apple cider vinegar a probiotic itself? No, but apple cider vinegar probiotic content makes it an excellent source of probiotics benefits.

Did you know that bacteria might actually keep you healthy? It all just depends on the type of bacteria. In this case, we’re talking about the benefits of probiotics. Probiotics benefits are some of the most widely researched natural solutions to gut health. For years, scientists and physicians have observed the many benefits of probiotics for not just the gut, but for the entire body.
Prebiotics and supplementary ingredients — For probiotic bacteria to grow, they also need prebiotics. High-quality probiotic supplements have both prebiotics and other ingredients designed to support digestion and immunity. Examples of these ingredients are (preferably fermented) flaxseed, chia seed, cañihua seed, astragalus, ashwagandha, hemp seed, pumpkin seed, milk thistle, peas, ginger, mung bean and turmeric.
"I usually recommend Garden of Life, BioK or Megafoods brand," says Shapiro. "I also recommend starting with about 30 billion CFU and making sure your supplement has at least 12 different strains. And if you don't eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains that provide fiber for the probiotics to live off of, make sure you're the one you are taking contains prebiotics as well.
This makes it harder for your immune system to work properly and leaves you open to feeling under the weather unnecessarily. The good news is that taking probiotics can help replenish your gut microbiome, and since 80% of your immune system is in your gut, this inevitably has a very supportive effect on your immunity. Probiotics also specifically support your mucosal immune systems, found in your ear, nose, and throat area and your lungs, helping you to maintain respiratory health.4
"The name itself is derived from the Latin 'pro-' meaning 'for' and the Greek '-biotic' meaning 'life,'" explains Jeannel Astarita, skincare expert and founder of Just Ageless NYC Wellness and Medspa. "Probiotics are the helpful bacteria that live primarily in your gut and play a crucial role in your overall health by fighting pathogens and yeast that lead to a weakened immune system."

While the logic behind probiotics might seem sound, it is clear that we have a long way to go before understanding the complexity of the microbiota and the effects—both good and bad—that probiotics might have. All individuals have a unique gut microbiome, and the effects of different bacteria on different people are likely to be highly variable; as such, probiotic use might even need to be personalised for optimal benefits. Commercially available products might not contain the correct strains or quantities of bacteria to provide benefits, and most probiotic supplements contain only single strains, vastly oversimplifying the complexity of the microbiota. While taking a supplement for improved health is certainly an attractive prospect, those looking to aid their gut microbiota might be better served by consuming a healthy, varied diet. In the meantime, rigorous clinical trials are needed to substantiate potential health benefits and to confirm whether probiotics are elixirs or just empty promises.
Other uses. Many other claims are made for probiotics—that they lower cholesterol, alleviate allergic skin conditions (like eczema), treat ulcers and urinary tract infections, improve vaginal health, reduce the risk of colon cancer, ease anxiety and depression, and ward off traveler’s diarrhea. Good evidence to support these claims is lacking. Research on probiotics for weight loss has yielded inconsistent results, and even studies with positive results have mostly found very small benefits, as was seen in an analysis of 15 clinical trials in Obesity Reviews in 2018.

Caution needs to be taken by everyone who chooses to take these supplements, but this is especially true for children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems. For people with compromised immune systems due to disease or treatment for a disease (such as cancer chemotherapy), taking probiotics may actually increase one's chances of getting sick. It has been shown that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has resulted in infections and sepsis (infection of the bloodstream). One case of bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) was recently found when someone with active severe inflammatory bowel diseases with mucosal disruption was given Lactobacillus GG. Always speak with a doctor before taking any supplement under these circumstances.
The views expressed in this article intend to highlight alternative studies and induce conversation. They are the views of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of goop, and are for informational purposes only, even if and to the extent that this article features the advice of physicians and medical practitioners. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment, and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice.
Cardiovascular health is a major concern for men in Western societies. While some of the main challenges to maintaining a healthy heart (like excessive drinking and smoking) aren’t nearly as widespread as they once were, unwanted changes in heart function are still one of the most common reasons for men to need emergency medical care.1 But taking probiotics can help you keep your heart firing on all cylinders, even as you age.

Though capsules are ideal for quick, convenient consumption, powdered products are a great choice for anyone who wants to mix their probiotics with shakes or smoothies. The Hyperbiotics Organic Prebiotic Powder is a totally taste-free prebiotic powder that has inulin, FOS, resistant starch, and dietary fiber to help keep your gut health in line. Unlike probiotics, prebiotics works to nourish and grow the bacteria that is already in your body. This supplement also has acacia fiber, which is said to help suppress appetite and reduce gas and bloating. You can take between one and three scoops of powder a day, depending on how much microbial support you’re looking for. Each container comes with 375 grams or roughly 54 servings, and it doesn’t need to be refrigerated.
Add in a naturally derived prebiotic, which feeds probiotics to boost both potency and effectiveness, and you have a slow-release capsule that delivers beneficial bacteria exactly where it’s needed. What’s more, Hyperbiotics Pro-15 has a long shelf life (18 months from the date of manufacture) and requires no refrigeration, which makes it as portable as it is tiny. This product is made in the USA, an NSF- and GMP-certified facility.
Probiotic supplements and foods can play a major positive role in brain fog. Lactobacillus, in particular, can produce neurotransmitters used for brain neuron-to-neuron transmission to facilitate thinking. Probiotics can interact with the vagus nerve to the brain, with the enteric nervous system that can communicate with the brain, and with the brain via chemical messengers.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Undaunted, researchers looked into whether probiotics might be beneficial in a host of disorders, even when the connection to gut health and the microbiome was tenuous. Reviews show that there is insufficient evidence to recommend their use to treat or prevent eczema, preterm labor, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, allergic diseases or urinary tract infections.


L. Casei also made headlines when a study found it beneficial in relieving anxiety. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study found supplementation with 24 billion units of the L. Casei strain Shirota led to a rise in probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, as well as a significant decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression [2].
Selecting a multi-strain probiotic is also consistent with the theory that filling your gut with enough good bacteria outcompetes any bad bacteria for the same space and resources. In your gut, the more diversified the good bacteria, the harder it is for the baddies to gain a foothold. With all this in mind, we only looked at supplements containing multiple strains of bacteria.
Your gut is diverse, so your probiotic should be too. Look for a supplement that contains multiple strains, sometimes listed as a proprietary blend. Inferior brands might only contain one probiotic strain such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Aside from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, probiotics may contain Strep. thermophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, among others.
Supplements: dietary probiotic supplements -- which are available in capsules, tablets, powders and liquid extracts -- each contain a specific type of probiotic. These products are available at health food and natural food stores, vitamin shops, and other stores. As an example, one commonly used supplement is acidophilus, which is available from several supplement manufacturers.

In 2019, dietary restrictions have become so mainstream that it is virtually impossible to step into a restaurant without spotting a specialized menu for dairy, gluten, vegan, and vegetarian eaters. The supplement industry is no exception and the majority of high-quality probiotics available on the market today include vegan or vegetarian capsules. Many brands are also gluten-free these days as well, and several are dedicated to keeping their formulas free of dairy, soy, and many other common allergens.

In a separate study involving 21 healthy volunteers, also published today in Cell, the same group of researchers found that taking probiotics after treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics may actually delay the return of people's normal gut microbiome. This goes against the idea that probiotics can help "repopulate" people's gut bacteria after antibiotics wipe them out.
Possibly the most popular probiotic food is live cultured yogurt or greek yogurt made from the milk of cows, goats or sheep. Yogurt, in most cases, can rank at the top of probiotic foods if it comes from raw, grass-fed animals. The problem is there is a large variation on the quality of yogurts on the market today. When buying yogurt, look for three things: First, that it comes from goat’s, sheep milk or A2 cows milk; second, that it’s grass-fed; and third, that it’s organic.

Unfortunately, the U.S. has no federal standards for probiotic supplements. Therefore, you run the risk of purchasing a product without any guarantee that it contains its advertised probiotic strains, that the strains are alive, or that the product is free from unhealthy ingredients. Therefore, it may be best to choose a brand-name probiotic that has research backing their effectiveness. Here are some examples:


It seems like one minute you have diarrhea (D) and the next minute you are constipated (C). Abdominal pain, cramping, and bloating come and go. You are tired of running to the bathroom frequently, or spending a long time in the bathroom waiting for something to happen. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a diagnosis of exclusion. Infections and other causes of your IBS-C dominant or IBS-D dominant symptoms have to be ruled out, but in many cases the diagnosis of IBS doesn’t really provide answers. You may be on a low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet, which helps, but is restrictive.
Ultimate Flora tested significantly higher than the majority of general probiotic blends. Critical Care is composed of very well-documented probiotic strains and is an effective addition to any lifestyle, capable of conferring a wide variety of health benefits. The probiotic strains are not only diverse, they were also resilient to outside influences and, in many cases, were successful in establishing colonies within the digestive tracts of study participants.
Kimchi: This fermented vegetable is made from Chinese cabbage (beachu), radish, green onion, red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, and fermented seafood (jeotgal). Many bacteria have been found to be present and can include any of the following: Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum, L. mesenteroides, L. citreum, L. gasicomitatum, L. brevis, L. curvatus, L. plantarum, L. sakei, L. lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, and W. koreensis. A recent review linked the health benefits of kimchi to anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colon health promotion, cholesterol reduction, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion.
One thing that is often overlooked is gut health and the benefits of probiotics for weight loss. Gut microbiota can affect food intake choices, appetite, and body weight and composition. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the gut microbiota with a shift favoring pathogens and opportunists, is common in overweight people. The pathogens and opportunists create an inflammatory situation that affects insulin and other hormones, resulting in the inability to lose weight.

There are a lot of factors that play a role in how well probiotics survive before it actually hits your system. How long a store keeps the product in storage before selling it, the temperature at which you store the probiotic, the foods you eat the probiotic with, or the medications you take can affect the effectiveness of the probiotic. If you’re buying a product closer to its “Sell By” date, you might not reap the full benefits because that probiotic may not be as strong.
Digestive tract conditions. Probiotic supplements may be useful in treating and preventing inflammatory conditions, such as pouchitis (which affects people who have their colons removed), inflammatory bowel diseases (such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), and chronic stomach inflammation and ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori bacterium. They may also be helpful in treating constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, acid reflux, spastic colon; shortening the duration of infectious diarrhea; and reducing the recurrence of bladder and colorectal cancer. Some studies suggest that yogurt is helpful in preventing diarrhea - a common side effect of treatment with antibiotics. It has also been shown to prevent or treat urinary tract infections and vaginal yeast infections in women.
To boost the immune system, B. Lactis is a promising choice. One study had participants taking either a probiotic or a placebo for 6 weeks. At the end of the period, researchers measured antibody levels and found greater increases in antibodies of the B. Lactis group than in placebo participants, concluding that this probiotic may help improve immune function [1]. In addition, a 2009 study found that supplementation of the strain B. Lactis DN-173 led to self-reported improvements in digestive comfort [2].

The good news keeps stacking up for probiotics, the good-for-you bacteria that keep your GI system functioning in tip-top shape. "Research is finding that a healthy microbiome may play a role in reducing inflammation, a risk factor involved in illnesses ranging from colds to cancer, heart disease, arthritis, and cognitive decline," says Katherine Tallmadge, RD, author of Diet Simple. In addition, the bacteria may help burn body fat and reduce insulin resistance, she says. So to stay slim and healthy, consider adding more probiotic foods to your diet. Start with these truly yummy 13.


Probiotic bacteria actually compete against unfriendly flora for bacterial binding sites on the inside lining of your intestines, further protecting you from these harmful pathogens. One way to repopulate your gut with probiotics to restore harmony and get all their many benefits is with the right foods, which can support the growth and proliferation of good bacteria that crowd out the bad ones.
When it comes to probiotics and supplements, fresher is always better! That’s why the Garden of Life Raw Probiotics for Women feature completely raw, live probiotics just as nature intended. This raw formula helps to promote bowel regularity, digestive function, and healthy nutrient absorption all while supporting recurrent constipation, colon irregularities, and vaginal health problems.
Probiotics can be found in some foods, such as yogurt and cheese, as well as dietary supplements. There are numerous probiotic supplements on the market that contain a variety of bacteria. The two most common types of bacteria found in probiotics belong to the groups known as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Phillips'® Colon Health® Probiotic Capsules contain 3 types of good bacteria, from both groups, to help defend against occasional constipation, diarrhea, gas and bloating.∗
Add in a naturally derived prebiotic, which feeds probiotics to boost both potency and effectiveness, and you have a slow-release capsule that delivers beneficial bacteria exactly where it’s needed. What’s more, Hyperbiotics Pro-15 has a long shelf life (18 months from the date of manufacture) and requires no refrigeration, which makes it as portable as it is tiny. This product is made in the USA, an NSF- and GMP-certified facility.
Taking relatively high doses of these probiotic strains before, during, and after antibiotic treatment can help your microbiome get back on its feet: B. Lactis, B. Infantis, L. Acidophilus, L. Casei, L. Bulgaricus, L. Paracasei, L. Rhamnosus GG, and S. Boulardii. Our antibiotic combatant MegaFood MegaFlora has six of these strains, as well as eight others. One serving contains 20 billion CFUs to replenish the good bacteria.

An imbalance between good bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, yeasts or fungi, or a change in the bacteria species that colonize the digestive tract is called dysbiosis. It can have short and long-term effects on our body functions. These disruptions can reduce the immune system’s effectiveness, create unpleasant digestive symptoms (diarrhea, constipation, gas, etc.), be a contributor to certain chronic illnesses like obesity, and participate in producing pro-inflammatory metabolites.

Probiotics are clearly incredibly supportive, but they can't do their work alone. To make sure that you're getting the most out of your microbes, it's important that you give them the support they need to work. You've got lots of options for supporting your gut health, from dietary changes to probiotic supplementation, but make sure you're at least covering the following bases.
“Some strains have been shown to help with GI complaints, some with immune function, and some even have been shown to have benefits outside the intestinal tract, such as with vaginal health or eczema,” says Gail Cresci, Ph.D., R.D., a Cleveland Clinic researcher who studies the microbiome. But there are few definitive conclusions from the current research.
Renew Life Ultimate Flora offers 30 billion CFUs with 10 scientifically studied strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which according to current scientific research, are the two most prevalent good bacteria found in a healthy gut. In other words, you might choose these if you’re seeking a careful balance designed to re-establish proper immune health and digestive equilibrium.
Look for the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. Boulardii)—you can take it as a separate supplement or find it in multi-strain probotics. Studies show that it is effective at preventing antibiotic-induced diarrhea and Clostridium diffcicile (C. difficile) infection, which a course of antibiotics can cause. Saccharomyces boulardii increases your secretory IgA—in other words, it strengthens the immune system in the gut. (Some people say that Saccharomyces boulardii is also the panacea for Candida—it’s a yeast that fights yeast—but while it’s helpful for some, other people do not tolerate it well, so I recommend trying it as an individual supplement first to see how you respond.)

Probiotics are “friendly” bacteria that inhabit your body. Sound strange? These microscopic roommates can be your best buds if you show them a little love. One surefire way to do that is with probiotic supplements. Probiotics support the right ratio of good to bad bacteria in your gut. For bonus points, call on digestive enzymes. These unique blends offer specific nutritional support to assist digestion and nutrient absorption. Your healthy body will quickly appreciate these lifelong friends.
×